Partner: Ministry of Environment
Team Members: Shakeel Ahmed
The Sustainable Development Policy Institute was retained by the Ministry for the Environment to assist with the development and provision of a report on mitigation proposals across all sectors for the future development and prosperity of Pakistan. The chapter prepared was on the basis of business as usual and within the climate change framework as it affects the country’s future.
The report formed part of a wider publication by the Ministry and included sections on Adaptation to climate change institutional matters and access to assistance for the world community. The report (chapter on Mitigation) focused on Pakistan’s potential for mitigating Greenhouse Gases (GHG).
The study was divided into three sections:
- Background of various sectors in Pakistan which will be directly or indirectly influenced by climate change
- Green House Gases outlook for Pakistan 2011-2050
- Potential of mitigation financing options for Pakistan
The process, potential and working of sectors of Energy, Agriculture and Livestock, LULUCF, Transport, Industrial Processes, and Waste were examined and summarised to gain insight into a better understanding of the mitigation prospects of the mechanism shift of the same. The current state of these sectors projected the future and the potential for mitigation of GHG. The report looked into Pakistan’s future GHG emissions under the Business as Usual (BAU) case. However it was concluded that for Pakistan to achieve its intended growth as expressed as GDP, Pakistan will need to develop its current and abundant energy reserves in the form of Thar coal and similar extensive deposits which are among some of the largest in the world. The use of such resources will increase Pakistan’s GHG emissions. At this juncture it can be emphasized that, Pakistan is not a major emitter of GHG on the world stage and needs to develop its industrial base. As Pakistan’s GDP improves it will be in a better position to develop renewable energy projects to mitigate its emissions.
The report projected Pakistan’s future GHG emissions under these alternate scenarios, if certain Mitigation policies are followed. Financial options and potentials were described and the implications discussed. Developing various financial instruments was reviewed, including the development of “Climate Investment Funds” (CIF) and Pakistan’s strategy for availing funding was outlined. The report recommended the establishment of a National Climate Change Fund in Pakistan.