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Global Go To Think Tank Index (GGTTI) 2020 launched                    111,75 Think Tanks across the world ranked in different categories.                SDPI is ranked 90th among “Top Think Tanks Worldwide (non-US)”.           SDPI stands 11th among Top Think Tanks in South & South East Asia & the Pacific (excluding India).            SDPI notches 33rd position in “Best New Idea or Paradigm Developed by A Think Tank” category.                SDPI remains 42nd in “Best Quality Assurance and Integrity Policies and Procedure” category.              SDPI stands 49th in “Think Tank to Watch in 2020”.            SDPI gets 52nd position among “Best Independent Think Tanks”.                           SDPI becomes 63rd in “Best Advocacy Campaign” category.                   SDPI secures 60th position in “Best Institutional Collaboration Involving Two or More Think Tanks” category.                       SDPI obtains 64th position in “Best Use of Media (Print & Electronic)” category.               SDPI gains 66th position in “Top Environment Policy Tink Tanks” category.                SDPI achieves 76th position in “Think Tanks With Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program” category.                    SDPI notches 99th position in “Top Social Policy Think Tanks”.            SDPI wins 140th position among “Top Domestic Economic Policy Think Tanks”.               SDPI is placed among special non-ranked category of Think Tanks – “Best Policy and Institutional Response to COVID-19”.                                            Owing to COVID-19 outbreak, SDPI staff is working from home from 9am to 5pm five days a week. All our staff members are available on phone, email and/or any other digital/electronic modes of communication during our usual official hours. You can also find all our work related to COVID-19 in orange entries in our publications section below.    The Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) is pleased to announce its Twenty-third Sustainable Development Conference (SDC) from 14 – 17 December 2020 in Islamabad, Pakistan. The overarching theme of this year’s Conference is Sustainable Development in the Times of COVID-19. Read more…       FOOD SECIRITY DASHBOARD: On 4th Nov, SDPI has shared the first prototype of Food Security Dashboard with Dr Moeed Yousaf, the Special Assistant to Prime Minister on  National Security and Economic Outreach in the presence of stakeholders, including Ministry of National Food Security and Research. Provincial and district authorities attended the event in person or through zoom. The dashboard will help the government monitor and regulate the supply chain of essential food commodities.

The Relationship between Education and Religious Discrimination in Pakistan-Analysis of Curriculum and Pedagogy in Pakistani Schools


Duration: 2010-2011

Team Member:  Afsheen Naz, Fayyaz Yaseen, Muhammad Arif Naveed, Muhammad Salim Khwaja, Gulbaz Ali Khan, Dr Humaira Ishfaq, Muhammad Azhar


Education is widely acknowledged to have a central importance in creating pluralistic societies. This is particularly relevant to Pakistan which is ethnically and religiously diverse society consisting of more than 180 million people. It is the nature of education that can either promote social cohesion amongst diverse groups or create anxieties between them. Most important in this context are the curricula, textbooks and the educators. The messages contained in the textbooks combined with the attitudes of teachers and their methods to deliver these messages greatly influence the values of the taught towards the diversity in the society.


  • To find out to what extent religious minorities are represented in these school curricula
  • The degree to which biases against religious minorities result from how these minorities are portrayed in the educational system (through both curriculum and pedagogy)
  • The degree to which biases that have resulted from the educational systems have led to discriminatory or extremist actions against religious minorities in Pakistan¬—whether at the level of youth, the community, societal leadership, or extremist groups

SDPI, in collaboration with International Center for Religion and Diplomacy conducted an extensive study of curricula, textbooks, pedagogy and attitudes of students towards religious diversity, in both public schools and madrassas in Pakistan. SDPI researchers reviewed school textbooks for Grades 1-10 produced by the four provincial textbook boards (being taught during 2011) as well as selected madrassa textbooks. They also conducted in-depth interviews and focused group discussions with school teachers and students in four provinces, interviews of education experts and case studies of religious discrimination against non Muslim students.


The findings of this study are published in the report “Connecting the Dots: Education and Religious Discrimination in Pakistan” that was launched by US Commission on International Religious Freedoms. The report reveals that pejorative treatment of minority religions in the textbooks and the biased attitudes of teachers lead to the discriminatory attitudes of students towards religious diversity. Analysis of the data shows the negative portrayal of non Muslims in the textbooks as well as in the teachers’ attitudes towards and their teaching practices – both in public schools and madrassas. This study shows that the role of non Muslims in the formation, development and defense of Pakistan is altogether omitted from the educational discourse. The attitudes of public school teachers are often prejudiced towards the religious diversity and reflect bigotry. The study provides the evidences of prejudiced attitudes of teachers being passed on to the students hence transmitting the negative perceptions and stereotypes in the education system. The report presents the case studies of the discrimination faced by non Muslim students within the school environments, often by their peer groups and teachers, alongside a sheer vacuum of any institutional arrangement to address such discrimination. The study also suggests a number of reforms – for both public schools and madrassas – ranging from the production of new textbooks free from biases, training of the teachers to respect the religious diversity, to establish institutional mechanisms to address the incidents of discrimination against non Muslim students.