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Global Go To Think Tank Index (GGTTI) 2020 launched                    111,75 Think Tanks across the world ranked in different categories.                SDPI is ranked 90th among “Top Think Tanks Worldwide (non-US)”.           SDPI stands 11th among Top Think Tanks in South & South East Asia & the Pacific (excluding India).            SDPI notches 33rd position in “Best New Idea or Paradigm Developed by A Think Tank” category.                SDPI remains 42nd in “Best Quality Assurance and Integrity Policies and Procedure” category.              SDPI stands 49th in “Think Tank to Watch in 2020”.            SDPI gets 52nd position among “Best Independent Think Tanks”.                           SDPI becomes 63rd in “Best Advocacy Campaign” category.                   SDPI secures 60th position in “Best Institutional Collaboration Involving Two or More Think Tanks” category.                       SDPI obtains 64th position in “Best Use of Media (Print & Electronic)” category.               SDPI gains 66th position in “Top Environment Policy Tink Tanks” category.                SDPI achieves 76th position in “Think Tanks With Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program” category.                    SDPI notches 99th position in “Top Social Policy Think Tanks”.            SDPI wins 140th position among “Top Domestic Economic Policy Think Tanks”.               SDPI is placed among special non-ranked category of Think Tanks – “Best Policy and Institutional Response to COVID-19”.                                            Owing to COVID-19 outbreak, SDPI staff is working from home from 9am to 5pm five days a week. All our staff members are available on phone, email and/or any other digital/electronic modes of communication during our usual official hours. You can also find all our work related to COVID-19 in orange entries in our publications section below.    The Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) is pleased to announce its Twenty-third Sustainable Development Conference (SDC) from 14 – 17 December 2020 in Islamabad, Pakistan. The overarching theme of this year’s Conference is Sustainable Development in the Times of COVID-19. Read more…       FOOD SECIRITY DASHBOARD: On 4th Nov, SDPI has shared the first prototype of Food Security Dashboard with Dr Moeed Yousaf, the Special Assistant to Prime Minister on  National Security and Economic Outreach in the presence of stakeholders, including Ministry of National Food Security and Research. Provincial and district authorities attended the event in person or through zoom. The dashboard will help the government monitor and regulate the supply chain of essential food commodities.

Number of Downlaods: 42

Published Date: Jan 1, 2004

Ban on Non-biodegradable Chemicals in Detergents (PB-18)

Mahmood A. Khwaja
2004

Detergents are made from Branched Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic acid (BAB/ABS, brand name Conco AAS) and Linear Alky Benzene Sulphonic acid (LAB/LAS, brand name Santomerse). These chemicals have a high production volume and more than 1, 000,000 pounds are produced annually. These ionic surfactants are found in domestic, agricultural, industrial cleaning and personnel products (including those used by children), textiles and paints. Detergents, therefore, are now competing well with soaps in terms of both quality and cost. Commercial products usually contain 60 – 90 percent, while consumer products contain 5 – 30 percent BAB/LAB. The commercial BAB/LAB products are mixtures of various alkyl chain lengths, typically from C10 to C14. The manufacturing process of BAB/LAB emits benzene, which is a known carcinogen and a known reproductive toxin.

BAB was developed in the early 1930s and being inexpensive became an instant success for use in powdered laundry detergents, replacing soaps. Soon, however, it was found that these detergents caused foaming problems in sewage/waste water treatment plants and in the environment. BAB surfactant began to accumulate in remote streams, waterfalls and fountains. These synthetic detergents were thought to be more resistant than soap to degradation in sewage treatment plants. The degradation process was found to be slow and incomplete due to the interruption of bacterial two-carbon oxidation by the branched alkyl (3-carbon oxidation) in the hydrocarbon chain (C10 – C12). This led to a search for the development of biodegradable straight chain chemicals to be used in detergents.

The light colored viscous liquid LAB was introduced in 1965 as a replacement for BAB. LAB are complex mixtures of closely related homologues and isomers. Though pure LAB solutions have average foaming properties, but the alkaline mixtures of LAB are considered almost as excellent as soap.