Asset 1

Global Go To Think Tank Index (GGTTI) 2020 launched                    111,75 Think Tanks across the world ranked in different categories.                SDPI is ranked 90th among “Top Think Tanks Worldwide (non-US)”.           SDPI stands 11th among Top Think Tanks in South & South East Asia & the Pacific (excluding India).            SDPI notches 33rd position in “Best New Idea or Paradigm Developed by A Think Tank” category.                SDPI remains 42nd in “Best Quality Assurance and Integrity Policies and Procedure” category.              SDPI stands 49th in “Think Tank to Watch in 2020”.            SDPI gets 52nd position among “Best Independent Think Tanks”.                           SDPI becomes 63rd in “Best Advocacy Campaign” category.                   SDPI secures 60th position in “Best Institutional Collaboration Involving Two or More Think Tanks” category.                       SDPI obtains 64th position in “Best Use of Media (Print & Electronic)” category.               SDPI gains 66th position in “Top Environment Policy Tink Tanks” category.                SDPI achieves 76th position in “Think Tanks With Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program” category.                    SDPI notches 99th position in “Top Social Policy Think Tanks”.            SDPI wins 140th position among “Top Domestic Economic Policy Think Tanks”.               SDPI is placed among special non-ranked category of Think Tanks – “Best Policy and Institutional Response to COVID-19”.                                            Owing to COVID-19 outbreak, SDPI staff is working from home from 9am to 5pm five days a week. All our staff members are available on phone, email and/or any other digital/electronic modes of communication during our usual official hours. You can also find all our work related to COVID-19 in orange entries in our publications section below.    The Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) is pleased to announce its Twenty-third Sustainable Development Conference (SDC) from 14 – 17 December 2020 in Islamabad, Pakistan. The overarching theme of this year’s Conference is Sustainable Development in the Times of COVID-19. Read more…       FOOD SECIRITY DASHBOARD: On 4th Nov, SDPI has shared the first prototype of Food Security Dashboard with Dr Moeed Yousaf, the Special Assistant to Prime Minister on  National Security and Economic Outreach in the presence of stakeholders, including Ministry of National Food Security and Research. Provincial and district authorities attended the event in person or through zoom. The dashboard will help the government monitor and regulate the supply chain of essential food commodities.

Number of Downlaods: 39

Published Date: May 15, 2003

Lead Exposure and Children: Blood Lead Levels in School Children Resulting from Leaded Petrol use and Increasing Road Traffic in Pakistan (P-31)

Mahmood A. Khwaja
2003

Executive Summary

Increasing prosperity and population growths in many developing countries are resulting in accelerated growth in vehicle population and vehicle kilometers traveled. In Pakistan also the number of vehicles have jumped from 0.8 million to about 4.0 million within 20 years showing an overall increase of more than 400 %. Accordingly, the consumption of petrol (motor spirit) has increased from 828,670 metric tons to 1,189,042 metric tons. The high content of lead in petrol is a serious issue, as the end product of it is the release of lead into the environment. In Pakistan, prior to July 2001, lead content in petrol was reported to be as high as 0.35 – 0.84 gram per liter (however, presently all refineries in the country claim to be producing lead-free petrol).The reported lead levels in air (micrograms/cubic centimeter) in different cities of Pakistan are: Karachi (1980 – 81) 0.13 – 0.24; Peshawar (1994 – 95) 0.21 – 0.79; Lahore (1993 – 94) 0.15 – 8.36 & (1999- 2000) 0.89 – 7.85 and Rawalpindi (1999 – 2000) 0.71 – 10.00, indicating the very alarming increase and high levels of lead in the ambient air, at the reported sites and time of monitoring. Children in developing countries with dietary deficiencies are very susceptible to lead poisoning. Special concern of lead poisoning has been the accumulation of experimental and epidemiological evidence suggesting that lead is a neurotoxin and it impairs brain development in children even at levels that were considered safe. Blood lead levels (BPbLs) have been studied in 900 healthy school children (boys & girls), mostly below 15 years of age and belonging to lower income families, in some cities of Pakistan. The overall mean BPbLs (micrograms per deciliter) in three cities were found to be 22.8 +/- 3.30, 19.00 +/- 6.48 and 2.30 +/- 0.19 (rural site). Details of these investigations and government national environment action plan (NEAP), with special reference to clean air by providing clean fuel and taking others air pollution control measures are described and discussed in this paper.

Key words: Lead exposure, BPbLs, Petrol, Children