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Published Date: Aug 31, 2017

Migration futures in Asia and Africa: economic opportunities and distributional effects – the case of Pakistan
Executive Summary
Climate change will have negative impacts on agricultural productivity, particularly in marginal environments like semi-arid areas. The risk that climate change will contribute to declining farm incomes, narrowing livelihood options, and rising threats of food insecurity implies challenges for rural livelihoods and people.
Such concerns are particularly important for agrarian economies, such as Pakistan. About 60% of Pakistan’s 200 million1 people reside in rural areas, of which 38% fall under the national poverty line, thereby making poverty a striking characteristic of rural areas. Impacts of climate change are particularly concerning for livelihood vulnerability, which is defined as the strength of a given livelihood measured by its productive outcomes and its resilience to shocks, seasonal changes, and trends. Declining agricultural yields and diminishing livelihood prospects because of climate change may motivate many people to move away from villages in search of better opportunities. Therefore, the research arena is now shifting towards understanding the potential of migration as an adaptation strategy and its contribution to building livelihood resilience among households.
Against this backdrop, this study analyses the degree of livelihood resilience of rural migrant2 and non-migrant households. It does so by studying the role of internal migration in introducing people to new economic opportunities while considering the distributional impacts of out-migration from rural areas on the vulnerable groups such as women. Specifically, we look at the role of migration in livelihood improvement via receipt of remittances, technology transfer, social networks, etc.