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Global Go To Think Tank Index (GGTTI) 2020 launched                    111,75 Think Tanks across the world ranked in different categories.                SDPI is ranked 90th among “Top Think Tanks Worldwide (non-US)”.           SDPI stands 11th among Top Think Tanks in South & South East Asia & the Pacific (excluding India).            SDPI notches 33rd position in “Best New Idea or Paradigm Developed by A Think Tank” category.                SDPI remains 42nd in “Best Quality Assurance and Integrity Policies and Procedure” category.              SDPI stands 49th in “Think Tank to Watch in 2020”.            SDPI gets 52nd position among “Best Independent Think Tanks”.                           SDPI becomes 63rd in “Best Advocacy Campaign” category.                   SDPI secures 60th position in “Best Institutional Collaboration Involving Two or More Think Tanks” category.                       SDPI obtains 64th position in “Best Use of Media (Print & Electronic)” category.               SDPI gains 66th position in “Top Environment Policy Tink Tanks” category.                SDPI achieves 76th position in “Think Tanks With Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program” category.                    SDPI notches 99th position in “Top Social Policy Think Tanks”.            SDPI wins 140th position among “Top Domestic Economic Policy Think Tanks”.               SDPI is placed among special non-ranked category of Think Tanks – “Best Policy and Institutional Response to COVID-19”.                                            Owing to COVID-19 outbreak, SDPI staff is working from home from 9am to 5pm five days a week. All our staff members are available on phone, email and/or any other digital/electronic modes of communication during our usual official hours. You can also find all our work related to COVID-19 in orange entries in our publications section below.    The Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) is pleased to announce its Twenty-third Sustainable Development Conference (SDC) from 14 – 17 December 2020 in Islamabad, Pakistan. The overarching theme of this year’s Conference is Sustainable Development in the Times of COVID-19. Read more…       FOOD SECIRITY DASHBOARD: On 4th Nov, SDPI has shared the first prototype of Food Security Dashboard with Dr Moeed Yousaf, the Special Assistant to Prime Minister on  National Security and Economic Outreach in the presence of stakeholders, including Ministry of National Food Security and Research. Provincial and district authorities attended the event in person or through zoom. The dashboard will help the government monitor and regulate the supply chain of essential food commodities.

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Published Date: Jun 13, 2006

Study on Effluents from Selected Sugar Mills in Pakistan: Potential Environmental, Health, and Economic Consequences of an Excessive Pollution Load


Pakistan’s 77 sugar mills comprise a major industrial sector in the country, with reported production of four million metric tons of sugar during 2003-2004. In the absence of adequate pollution control measures, such a large operation brings with it the potential for significant environmental and health concerns. In addition to releases of substantial levels of air and solid waste pollutants, a major environmental challenge posed by sugar production is the large amount of pollutant-laden wastewater produced.

Nearly all stages of sugar production – occurring at the mill house, process house, boiler house, cooling pond and distillery (for mills that also produce industrial alcohol from molasses) – are water intensive, discharging waste water containing high levels of oil, suspended solids, organic matter, and chemicals. A typical wastewater management practice employed by industrial management in the country is the improper use of unlined lagoons, a potential source of contamination of underground drinking water supplies.

For the present study, sampling of water effluents was conducted at a few sugar mills in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh and the effluent samples were examined for pH, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease content, and temperature. The analytical data revealed that the observed values of TSS, BOD, COD and oil and grease were higher than Pakistan’s National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS).

This paper explores the health and environmental impacts of waste water releases from the sugar industry, particularly in terms of pollutant parameters that are found to exceed NEQS; the amount of pollution charge, as calculated under the notified government environmental rules and regulations, that the industry will have to bear over the years if it fails to comply with NEQS; and the international trade implications of not meeting environmental standards. It also appraises the technical and regulatory context in which the wastewater problem may be tackled, discussing existing environmental policies and legislation and available options including technologies for the reduction of wastewater volume and pollution load, end of pipe treatment, and recycling/reuse of waste water.