- Tuesday | 15 Apr, 2014
- Gulbaz Ali Khan, Muhammad Tahir Ali, Maqsood Ahmed jan, Kanwar Muhammad Javaid Iqbal, Syed Nazer Hyder
- Research Reports,Project Publications
A wave of terrorism and insurgency erupted and gradually gained momentum during the last decade in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). Violence unleashed by extremist groups reached a climax during 2007 as militants bombed public places, schools, places of worship and hospitals and adopted other forms of violence such as targeted killings and kidnapping for ransom. The epicenter of the catastrophe was the tribal areas comprising Malakand and Federally Administered Areas of KP.
The massive destruction impelled the authorities to seek assistance of the World Bank and Asian Development Bank to assess the extent of damages, cost of rehabilitation and to recommend strategies to comprehensively address the problems responsible for the crisis. A comprehensive ‘Preliminary Damage and Need Assessment’ (DNA) was consequently launched in 2009 with the primary objective of assessing the losses suffered in the areas affected by militancy. The main focus was on quantification of immediate and medium term reconstruction and recovery cost in Malakand Division (Buner, Lowe Dir, Upper Dir, Shangla and Swat) of KP and two agencies of Bajaur and Mohmand in FATA.
The study has been initiated at the request of the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Strengthening PRS and Monitoring Project of UNDP and aims at conducting a comprehensive academic investigation to evaluate the effects of militancy and the impact trend of rehabilitation. The objective is to provide input for fine tuning the future policies and programmes for these areas and to address their needs on the basis of research investigation in the sampled area. Although the earlier studies have comprehensively dealt with the assessment of damages incurred, their rehabilitation cost and the factors responsible for the crisis, their findings have been supplemented and updated with a probe into the latest situation on ground. The latest position is summed up in the paragraphs that follow..
The education sector in the affected areas is comprised of both public and private schools. However, most of the schools are public sector institutions and very few are run privately . . The militants threatened the administration and teaching staff and targeted the primary schools,
especially girls’ schools. Multifarious reasons led to a sharp decline in the attendance and enrolment ratios which touched the lowest levels in the history of the Malakand Division. Rehabilitation activities have been undertaken at the right time by the GoKP with the support of the international donors including USAID and UAE. The enrollment rate has surpassed the premilitancy position due to the provisional arrangement
of make-shifts schools in tents and rented buildings. In addition to the support provided by GoKP, CSOs are also playing a vital role in bringing back the education sector to its previous position. It is important to mention that the community members and especially the parents are satisfied with the rehabilitation process. The ongoing uplift activities in education sector may take more than five years to complete the rehabilitation process.
Health care services remained non-functional due to the damages mostly to the basic health units. The large scale migration from the region also caused the non-availability of doctors at the rural/basic health units. Findings reveal that those who were serving prior to the outbreak of militancy are now refusing to serve again in the same health care units. PaRRSA reviewed and 10 verified the damaged health infrastructures and demanded US7.0 million for the revival of health
care services. GoKP signed MoUs with the international donors for the timely recovery of basic health units and restoration of their services. Additionally, USAID has also devised a comprehensive health care delivery programme for the Malakand Division. USAID also supplied
equipments for improved functioning of these basic health providers. Although the GoKP is actively engaged in rehabilitation of health sector, the pace of work is not satisfactorily. That is why the community and the health officials are not satisfied with the ongoing rehabilitation effort.
Transport is one of the major businesses of the valley due to its significance in the local economic structure as it drives tourism, businesses and livelihoods. Prior to militancy, the Swat district was well connected through the local roads as well as the highways. All the roads and bridges were badly damaged due to blasts by the militants and movement of army tanks to counter militancy. Among other transport, inter-city transport such as coaches, medium sized vehicles and commercial pickup services were severely damaged due to the destruction of roads and bridges, causing a big loss to the transporters of the district. Owing to shortage of transport facilities, a sharp decline was observed in the traffic of tourists towards the valley. Temporary
bridges were installed by the army which were still in use by the local community both for personal and commercial purposes. The roads used by the army against the militants have not yet been fixed due to lack of payments to the local government NHA and provincial C&W. The
army is also involved in rebuilding the road infrastructure. These agencies are proceeding in accordance with the policy and strategies of the GoKP.